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The Fasting Life

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Henry Rogers
Henry Rogers

2021 - Vortex

Vortex is a 2021 independent psychological drama film[3] written and directed by Gaspar Noé.[4] The film premiered in the Cannes Premiere section at the 2021 Cannes Film Festival.[5][6] It stars Dario Argento as a father and author, Lui, his first leading role,[7] alongside Françoise Lebrun as his wife, Elle, and Alex Lutz as his son, Stéphane.

2021 - Vortex

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Evolution of the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in the stratospheric circulation. Top figures show 10 millibar (mb) geopotential heights for (left) December 26, 2020 as the polar vortex began to weaken, (middle) on January 5, 2021 when the stratospheric winds reversed sign and (right) on January 15, 2021 during the warming event. Bottom figure shows the evolution of the 100mb zonal mean winds (blue line; units in m/s) at 60N and 10mb polar cap temperatures (red line; units in Kelvin) from December 15, 2020 through January 18, 2021. Figure courtesy of Lara Ciasto (NOAA CPC). Data from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis.

Surface temperature anomalies in degrees Celsius for (left) the 30 days following all identified SSWs in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis record from 1958-2013. From Butler et al. 2017 and (right) for the period averaged from Jan. 5 to Jan. 23 2021. Figure courtesy of Amy Butler (NOAA CSL) using data from the NCEP/NCAR Renalysis.

Left figure: 2-meter temperature, Middle figure: precipitation rate, and right figure: surface wind anomalies (arrows indicate the direction and magnitude of the anomaly, shading indicates the magnitude of the anomaly) after weak vortex events. The values are averaged over the 45-day period following a case of an extreme weak vortex event during the period from 13 February 2018 to 29 March 2018 using data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. [from Domeisen and Butler, 2020]. Figure courtesy of Daniela Domeisen (ETH Zurich).

Domeisen: I think the Blob and the Godzilla El Niño would fight it out for North America, El Niño would win the tropics and the entire Southern Hemisphere, while the polar vortex will emerge as a clear winner in all competitions in Eurasia.

Ciasto: By mid-December, the dynamical models were predicting a weakening of the stratospheric polar vortex for early January. Several of the models also predicted the brief strengthening of the polar vortex followed by a second weakening that occurred around Jan 10. But it seems that the models had a more difficult time forecasting the spatial features of the warming (i.e. vortex displacement vs splitting in two lobes). This could, in turn, impact the ability of the models to predict SSW-related surface impacts.

The differences are likely related to how and where the temperature changes due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in a particular model or scenario. For example, the tropical upper troposphere is predicted to become warmer, which will likely enhance the equator-to-pole temperature gradient across the tropopause (the atmospheric layer that separates the troposphere from the stratosphere), which would speed up the polar vortex in both hemispheres. However, enhanced warming of the Arctic surface relative to the middle latitudes reduces the surface temperature gradient and may act on the Northern Hemisphere polar vortex in the opposite direction. Also, the big atmospheric waves that nudge the stratosphere might differ in intensity or frequency in a future climate, which could affect how often SSWs occur.

We examine the pinning and dynamics of Abrikosov vortices interacting with pinning centers placed in a moiré pattern for varied moiré lattice angles. We find a series of locking angles at which the critical current shows a pronounced dip corresponding to lattices in which the vortices can flow along quasi-one-dimensional channels. At these locking angles, the vortices move with a finite Hall angle. Additionally, for some lattice angles there are peaks in the critical current produced when the substrate has a quasiperiodic character that strongly reduces the vortex channeling. Our results should be general to a broad class of particlelike assemblies moving on moiré patterns.

The Arctic polar vortex is a band of strong westerly winds that forms in the stratosphere between about 10 and 30 miles above the North Pole every winter. The winds enclose a large pool of extremely cold air. (There is an even stronger polar vortex in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere in its winter.) The stronger the winds, the more the air inside is isolated from warmer latitudes, and the colder it gets.

When the Arctic polar vortex is especially strong and stable (left globe), it encourages the polar jet stream, down in the troposphere, to shift northward. The coldest polar air stays in the Arctic. When the vortex weakens, shifts, or splits (right globe), the polar jet stream often becomes extremely wavy, allowing warm air to flood into the Arctic and polar air to sink down into the mid-latitudes. NOAA graphic, adapted from original by

Temperature (purple is cooler, pink is warmer) and winds (white lines) at the 250-millibar pressure level (the altitude at which the pressure is 250 millibars), showing the deeply wavy path of the polar jet stream across the United States on February 15, 2021. Screen capture from Earth.Nullschool, based on NOAA Global Forecast System data.

For example, the tropical upper troposphere is predicted to become warmer, which will likely enhance the equator-to-pole temperature gradient across the tropopause (the atmospheric layer that separates the troposphere from the stratosphere), which would speed up the polar vortex in both hemispheres. However, enhanced warming of the Arctic surface relative to the middle latitudes reduces the surface temperature gradient and may act on the Northern Hemisphere polar vortex in the opposite direction.

Other climate factors being equal, a weaker vortex, with more frequent disruptions, could slow the rate of winter warming in the mid-latitudes while accelerating it in the Arctic. A stronger polar vortex, with few disruptions might be expected to slow Arctic warming at the expense of more rapid winter warming in the mid-latitudes.

If they do exist, these sorts of intermittent influences of amplified Arctic warming on extreme winter weather in the mid-latitudes are going to be hard to pin down. In fall and early winter, it could be delayed freeze up of sea ice that is most influential, while in later winter, it could be the polar vortex. Or the influence might amplify cold extremes in one location and warm extremes in another, which over the whole mid-latitudes would cancel each other out.

February 5, 2021, the high temperature at St. Louis Lambert International Airport was 45 degrees. That was the last day our mercury climbed to the freezing mark until Feb. 19, 2021. We had 13 straight days of below freezing temperatures.

In a small subset of type-II superconductor films, the critical current is determined by a weakened Bean-Livingston barrier posed by the film surfaces to vortex penetration into the sample. A film property thus depends sensitively on the surface or interface to an adjacent material. We theoretically investigate the dependence of vortex barrier and critical current in such films on the Rashba spin-orbit coupling at their interfaces with adjacent materials. Considering an interface with a magnetic insulator, we find the spontaneous supercurrent resulting from the exchange field and interfacial spin-orbit coupling to substantially modify the vortex surface barrier, consistent with a previous prediction. Thus, we show that the critical currents in superconductor-magnet heterostructures can be controlled, and even enhanced, via the interfacial spin-orbit coupling. Since the latter can be controlled via a gate voltage, our analysis predicts a class of heterostructures amenable to gate-voltage modulation of superconducting critical currents. It also sheds light on the recently observed gate-voltage enhancement of critical current in NbN superconducting films.

(a) Schematic depiction of spontaneous supercurrent density jL (blue arrows) and the resulting forces (green arrows) on a vortex located at different places in the superconductor. The combined effect of SOC and exchange field results in a finite α and consequently, a spontaneous supercurrent directed parallel to α [Eq. (3)] in the interfacial layer, shaded light blue. A much smaller oppositely directed supercurrent density throughout the film (depicted via small blue arrows pointing upwards) ensures zero net current in equilibrium. (b) The normalized finite-α Gibbs energy density contributions G̃α=Gα4eλdaμ0/(VSϕ0αL,RcosθL,R) vs. the normalized vortex position x̃v=2xv/d. The blue and red curves respectively depict the contributions from left and right interfaces.

In quantum fluids, the quantization of circulation forbids the diffusion of a vortex swirling flow seen in classical viscous fluids. Yet, accelerating quantum vortices may lose their energy into acoustic radiations1,2, similar to the way electric charges decelerate on emitting photons. The dissipation of vortex energy underlies central problems in quantum hydrodynamics3, such as the decay of quantum turbulence, highly relevant to systems as varied as neutron stars, superfluid helium and atomic condensates4,5. A deep understanding of the elementary mechanisms behind irreversible vortex dynamics has been a goal for decades3,6, but it is complicated by the shortage of conclusive experimental signatures7. Here we address this challenge by realizing a programmable vortex collider in a planar, homogeneous atomic Fermi superfluid with tunable inter-particle interactions. We create on-demand vortex configurations and monitor their evolution, taking advantage of the accessible time and length scales of ultracold Fermi gases8,9. Engineering collisions within and between vortex-antivortex pairs allows us to decouple relaxation of the vortex energy due to sound emission and that due to interactions with normal fluid (that is, mutual friction). We directly visualize how the annihilation of vortex dipoles radiates a sound pulse. Further, our few-vortex experiments extending across different superfluid regimes reveal non-universal dissipative dynamics, suggesting that fermionic quasiparticles localized inside the vortex core contribute significantly to dissipation, thereby opening the route to exploring new pathways for quantum turbulence decay, vortex by vortex. 041b061a72


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